Feebeck Hall

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Feebeck HallDesignated: Historic Building Exterior
October 23, 1989

96 Armstrong Street, S.E.
Fronting approx. 50' on the north side of Armstrong St. (abandoned) at the northwest corner of the intersection of Armstrong and Pratt Streets
District 14, Land Lot 52
Existing Zoning SP1-1

Constructed: 1942-44
Architects: Hentz, Adler and Shutze

The original Grady Memorial Hospital was located in an area that contained, for the most part, residential structures. A primary consideration for the selection of the site was undoubtedly the close proximity of the Atlanta Medical College.

The Medical College, established by Dr. J. G. Westmoreland, was chartered by the legislature on February 14, 1854, and the first lectures were held in City Hall. However, by June 21, 1855, a large brick building had been constructed on the northwest corner of Butler and Armstrong Streets. Maps from 1871 show the structure surrounded by residences and undeveloped land.

By 1892, the Grady Hospital building appears on a birdseye map. To the west and to the north, along Edgewood Avenue, a few commercial structures have appeared. In later years, both the medical facilities and commercial structures expanded. Hospital records reflect the purchase by the City of the remaining residences on the block in 1912.

Patients were transported to the hospital by a rubber wheeled, horse drawn ambulance. It was in 1911 that the hospital purchased it's first motorized ambulance from the White Motor Company. The development of the Edgewood Street Railway by Joel Hunt made the hospital more accessible to patients and visitors, as did the much later development of the adjacent expressway system. Many patients walked to the clinics from the neighborhoods located in the Old Fourth Ward to the north.

HISTORY

It is difficult to conceive of a time when Atlanta had only one private hospital of any substantial size (St. Joseph's Infirmary, founded 1880), no municipal hospital, and no adequate facility that would treat the city's indigent citizens. Henry Woodfin Grady, the great spokesman for the "New South," had long advocated the establishment of a municipal hospital.

The establishment of the hospital partially resulted from a movement that began when the Atlanta Benevolent Home was turned over to a board of trustees in 1881. Shortly thereafter, the board met to decide its dissolution in order to secure "a wider field for doing good." Any new facility was to remain free of religious affiliation. In 1884 the board met to prepare for the sale of the home and to join the movement for a city supported hospital. A lawsuit later arose over closing the home, which in 1887 lacked funds to even open. By early 1890, all parties agreed to deed the Atlanta Benevolent Home property to the city so that it could be sold to support the hospital effort.

Following Henry Grady's death in December of 1889, Councilman Joseph Hirsch introduced a resolution to the Atlanta City Council providing for the establishment of a hospital in commemoration of Grady. The Council appropriated $30,000 and appointed Mr. Hirsch to head a committee to secure the rest of the funds. By mid-September of 1890, a lot on Butler Street was bought and graded. The approximately four acre lot was purchased from Col. L. P. Grant, who had previously given the city the 100 acres of land for Grant Park in 1882. The price was $13,500, but upon hearing the purpose for the purchase, Col. Grant returned $1,000 as a contribution to the new hospital.

On December 23, 1890, the cornerstone was laid with "impressive" Masonic ceremonies, a Zouave band, and an address by Mayor John T. Glenn. The Board of Trustees headed by Joseph Hirsch and the Building Committee chaired by Capt. J. W. English had selected Gardner, Pyne and Gardner as the architects. On May 25, 1892, the building was dedicated and on June 1, 1892, the first patients arrived.

Once established, Grady Hospital continually expanded. By 1912, when the second Grady Hospital (Butler Hall) was constructed, the hospital owned all of the block except a small parcel facing Armstrong Street. Two wards for male and female white patients, two wards for male and female black patients, a children's ward, a maternity ward, a laundry and kitchen had been constructed.

There were four distinct periods in the administration and funding of Grady Hospital. The institution was under the authority of a lay Board of Trustees from 1892 to 1921. During this period, the hospital was funded by the city and relied heavily on private fundraising and bequests from concerned citizens for its expansion programs. Between 1921 and 1931, the facility was under a politically appointed Council committee, whose members were subject to annual replacement. Local revenues remained the only source of official funding for the facility during this era. The third period of administration was marked by the re-establishment of a citizens Board of Trustees in 1931. Federal funds were available to the hospital for the first time during this period. In 1945 the Fulton/DeKalb Hospital Authority assumed the active management of all municipal hospital facilities. The counties now using the facilities have assumed a portion of the expense for running Grady.

An important highlight in the history of the hospital was the establishment of the Grady Hospital Training School for Nurses. Chartered on March 25, 1898, the school was the first of its kind in the state. Grady has also been for years the principal teaching hospital of the Emory University School of Medicine. More recently, it has also become the teaching hospital for the Morehouse School of Medicine. Medical progress at Grady was marked by the introduction of new technology and therapeutics soon after their acceptance by the American medical community. Among the innovations adopted by Grady were the x-ray machine, diet therapy following discoveries in nutrition research, safe blood transfusions after the perfecting of blood typing, sulfa drugs, and the establishment of a blood bank.

HENRY WOODFIN GRADY

Henry Grady, a native of Athens, Georgia, moved to Atlanta in 1872 from Rome where he was editor of the Rome Daily newspaper. He became the editor and part owner (with Alexander St. Clair-Abrams and Robert A. Alston) of the Atlanta Daily Herald. This paper, the rival of the Atlanta Constitution, lasted for four years. It was in a March 14, 1874 editorial in the Herald that Grady first used the term "New South".

A charming and perceptive man, as well as a great orator, Grady went on to become the legendary editor of the Atlanta Constitution (1879-1889). He was an outstanding reporter who promoted harmony between the North and South and encouraged industrialization and economic independence for the South. He was a great sports fan who did more than anyone else in the region to establish Southern baseball on a popular basis. He established the philosophy and direction that the City of Atlanta has followed since the days of Reconstruction. Grady died at the age of 39 on December 23, 1889, over one hundred years ago.

FEEBECK HALL

Feebeck Hall is named for Miss Annie Bess Feebeck, a graduate of the hospital's school of nursing in the class of 1909 and Director of Nurses for over thirty years. The Grady Hospital Training School for Nurses, the first in the state, established a three year graded course of study. This was a formalization of the system in which pupils were trained to make up the hospital's nursing staff and to provide a source of free labor. In addition to providing instruction, the hospital also provided uniforms as well as room and board. Although a five story building had been constructed in 1922, Hirsch Hall, the shortage of nursing students at Grady continued as the hospital grew. Grady recognized the need to offer modern facilities, including dormitories, comparable to those of other nursing schools. Feebeck Hall was built in 1942 as a result of appeals from the U.S. Public Health Service to provide large numbers of graduate nurses to serve the country's military need.

Feebeck Hall was designed by the prominent architectural firm of Hentz, Adler and Shutze with Clement J. Ford. Because it was constructed during the war years when materials were scarce, Feebeck Hall is, consequently, less detailed than the majority of Hentz, Adler and Shutze designs. The building is a three story plus basement, red brick structure with a flat roof and rectangular windows. The design of the entranceway is the one portion that is typical of the firm's other commissions. The entry, round arched and surrounded by brick voussoirs, is shaded by a simple wood dormer. The stone steps are a steeper version of the steps the firm designed for the Steiner Clinic. Edged on either side with a curved iron handrail, the steps fan out toward the sidewalk.

PHILIP TRAMMELL SHUTZE

Philip Trammell Shutze, born August 18, 1890, was the son of Philip Trammell Shutze, who was a banker with the Third National Bank of Columbus, Georgia. His mother was the former Sarah Lee Erwin. Soon after Schutze was nine, his father died and his mother, with her three young children, moved to Atlanta and then to West Point, Georgia. Shutze graduated from West Point High School as valedictorian in June of 1908. He entered the Georgia School of Technology on a scholarship, receiving a B. A. in Architecture on June 12, 1912. While a student, he worked part- time for the architectural firm of Hal Fitzgerald Hentz and Neel Reid. The summer prior to his senior year at Tech, he embarked upon a tramp steamer to view the continent's architectural traditions first hand. Shutze continued his formal education, again on a scholarship, at Columbia University in New York and received a Bachelor of Architecture from Columbia on October 6, 1923.

At Columbia, Shutze witnessed an exposition of student work from the American Academy in Rome. Impressed by the classical ideals of the Academy, the young architect submitted a design for the Prix de Rome and was selected as one of the four nationwide candidates. His design "The Decoration of an Island Commemorating its Purchase" captured the prize. Shutze left for Rome in 1915. The Academy allowed great freedom. Shutze observed, "one project a year was politely suggested." A Roman antique design occupied his first year and a study of Renaissance sites strengthened his knowledge of classical components during the second year at the Academy. The Baroque concepts guided a villa design during his third year. During this year, his studies were interrupted by World Ward I. Students were commissioned as first lieutenants into the Red Cross. Shutze's studies were interrupted again in 1919 when his mother died. He left Rome for America to attend his mother's funeral and remained in Atlanta during much of 1919, during which time he worked for the firm of Hentz, Reid, and Adler. Commissions with which Shutze assisted during this time included Rich's Department Store (Alabama at Broad Streets), the Howard Theatre, and the Andrew Calhoun house. With obligations at the Academy, Shutze returned to Rome and received his diploma in June of 1920.

Back in America, Shutze worked briefly for the New York architects F. Burrall Hoffnam, Jr. and Mott Schmidt. In 1923 he returned once again to Atlanta to practice with the firm of Hentz, Reid, and Adler until 1926. Upon the death of Neel Reid in 1926, he was promoted to a full partnership in the firm which became Hentz, Adler and Shutze. This partnership continued from 1926 to 1944. Warren Armistead joined the firm as an associate in 1936. After the death of Rudolph Adler and the retirement of Hal Hentz, Shutze and Armistead maintained a joint practice until 1950. Shutze's date of retirement is listed as 1960, although he was involved with later architectural commissions and held a valid architectural license in several states as late as 1980. Until his death on October 7, 1982, he remained a staunch advocate of the classical mode.

REFERENCES

Atlanta Journal and Constitution Magazine, March 8, 1914, pg. 7.

Birds Eye View of Atlanta, 1892.

Birds Eye View of Atlanta, 1871.

City Builder, Vol 9, #2, April, 1924, pg. 30.

Garrett, Franklin, Atlanta and Environs, 1954.

The Grady News, January 1967, Special Edition honoring the 75th Anniversary. Grady Hospital, Mss. 429, Atlanta Historical Society.

Granberry, Allen D. "Grady Memorial Hospital: The First Fifty Years, 1892-1942." M.A. Thesis, Georgia State University, 1989.

Grinnell, David A. and Renny Price. Draft National Register Nomination and additional research.

Handlin, David P. The American Home. 1979.

Hopkins, C. M. "City Atlas of Atlanta, Georgia," 1878.

The Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia, Vol. 29. no. 3. "Early Medical History of Georgia and Savannah Hospitals." March 1940.

Sanborn Maps, Atlanta Historical Society.

CRITERIA
(criteria descriptions)

Group I (1) (2) (3)
Group II (1) (3) (6) (7) (9) (10) (11)
Group III (1) (2) (3)

FINDINGS

The proposed nomination of Feebeck Hall meets the above-referenced criteria for an Historic Building or Site as set out in Section 16-20.004 of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Atlanta.

Contact Info
City of Atlanta
Atlanta Urban Design Commission
(AUDC)
55 Trinity Avenue, Suite 3400
Atlanta, Georgia 30335-0331

Tel: 404.330.6200
Fax: 404.658.6734

Doug Young
dyoung@atlantaga.gov

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