Designated: Landmark Building Exterior
82-86 Peachtree Street, SW &
District 14, Land Lot 76
The M. Rich & Bros. Co. Building is historically significant in two areas: Architecture and Commerce.
The building, as it substantially stands today, was expanded and remodeled by the architectural firm of Bruce and Morgan in 1906. This Atlanta firm was prominent in that the firm designed many public and commercial structures throughout Georgia. Also, Thomas Morgan served as founding president of the Atlanta Chapter of the American Institute of Architects and Alexander Bruce was Atlanta’s first member of the A.I.A. Until the turn of the Nineteenth century, the firm designed many courthouses and private homes in the Victorian style. As the "commercial style" began to develop in Chicago with the advent of tall buildings, Bruce and Morgan traveled to Chicago to study this development. Upon their return to Atlanta, they began to employ this style in the design of mercantile structures. The M. Rich & Bros. Co. expansion and remodeling in 1906 was the product of one of their early efforts to employ the new Chicago "commercial style."
The M. Rich & Bros. Co. building is significant both for its role in the development of Atlanta commercial institution and for its role in anchoring Atlanta’s original shopping district. As an institution, Rich’s, the successor of M. Rich & Bros. Co., has been synonymous with Atlanta department stores. The history of the three buildings that now comprise the 82-86 Peachtree Street compile is an integral part of the early history of commerce in Atlanta’s first commercial district. As the company grew, it developed a reputation for being humane and reliable and was responsive to customers within a several hundred mile radius of Atlanta, even at the turn of the century.
The firm that was responsible for building the building that now occupies 82-86 Peachtree Street was established by Morris Rich in 1867 at 36 Whitehall Street (now Peachtree Street), just down the street from 82-86 Peachtree (formerly 52-56 Whitehall Street). When Morris’ brother Emanuel joined him in the business in 1871, the firm became known as M. Rich & Co. After the two brothers joined forces, business increased steadily and the following year, 1872, the original store at 36 Whitehall was abandoned in favor of a larger building located diagonally across the street on the corner of Hunter and Whitehall Streets. In 1876, the two brothers were joined by a third, Daniel, and the name of the business was changed to M. Rich and Brothers.
In 1881, the three brothers opened a new store at 54-56 Whitehall Street. The two story building that housed the new store occupied two of the three lots that the subject building now occupies (a third lot, 52 Whitehall Street was added in 1906). Within five years after opening the 54-56 store, additional pace was needed and additional annexes (including an annex located at 46-48 Whitehall Street (now 76-78 Peachtree Street)) were periodically added until 1901, when business had increased to the point that a six story annex was added at the north rear end of the building. Elevator service was installed for the first time and the store was departmentalized. In that same year, the firm was incorporated as M. Rich & Bros. Co. At about the same time, yet another annex was added. This annex, located to the south of the initial site, fronted on 16-20 Hunter Street (now MLK). In 1906, the firm acquired the building located at 52 Whitehall Street. This new four story building (not including the basement) was built on the foundation of the two story buildings that had previously occupied 52-56 Whitehall Street. The construction and remodeling was done under the planning and design supervision of Bruce and Morgan Architects.
During the 1906 renovation and construction both of the rear annexes were integrated into a large T shaped plan. During construction of this new building, the company moved all of its remaining stock into the Furniture Annex on the North side of the building and carried on business until the opening of the new complex on Saturday, June 16, 1907. During the 1906 renovation, which began in June, 1906 and ended in early January, 1907, the Furniture Annex was accessed through the 46-48 Whitehall Street store frontage.
According to a newspaper article that appeared on the front page of the Sunday, June 17, 1907 edition of The Atlanta Constitution, general merchandise was located in the new Main Store section of the building while furniture and carpets occupied the Furniture Annex. The Hunter Ell contained an employee restaurant, offices and several departments including crockery, shoes and pianos.
By 1924, M. Rich & Bros. Co. has outgrown the building and moved into a new location at Broad and Alabama Street. The following year, the building was occupied by W. T. Grant Company, a national department store. W. T. Grant Company remained in the building until 1974 when it closed its doors after declaring bankruptcy. The building remained unoccupied until May, 1978 when Patrick Swindall purchased the building and established Atlanta Furniture Company. Atlanta Furniture Company occupied the building until 1986 when the building was sold to Trion-Winter-MLK Joint Venture. Mr. Swindall took the property back in 1990 after Trion-Winter-MLK defaulted on its obligations under a purchase money security agreement. After 1990, the building was occupied by The Great Five Points Flea Market. In 1998, after extensive renovations to the retail floors that front Peachtree Street and MLK, The Mall at 82 Peachtree opened and has continuously occupied the bottom two floors of the building.
M. RICH & BROS. CO. AND THE RICH’S FAMILY HISTORY
The sprawling department empire, known to hundreds of thousands throughout the Southeastern United States simply as Rich’s, began in a rough-hewn one-story wooden building measuring twenty by seventy-five feet, fronting an unpaved street known in 1867 as Whitehall Street (now Peachtree Street). Its founder, Morris Rich (1847-1928) was a native of Kashau, Hungary who came to America at age 13 with his older brother William. Both Morris and William were penniless and uneducated. His first regular job in this country was in a small mercantile store in Cleveland, Ohio where, even as a clerk, he displayed a knack for merchandising. By the time he was 18 he was able to start small stores of his own, first in Chattanooga, and later in Albany, Georgia.
By the spring of 1867, Morris, by sheer determination, had progressed in business and self-education to the point that he was ready to move to Atlanta where his brother William has already established a business knows as William Rich & Company. On May 28, 1867, with $1,000 (some accounts say $500) that he borrowed from William, Morris rented a little store at 36 Whitehall street, a short distance south of Alabama on the east side of the street, only a few hundred feet from the building now known as 82 Peachtree Street.
Morris began his business in the era of barter and trade where typical businessmen haggled and matched wits with their customers to determine the market price for dry goods. Morris, however, chose to establish his business on the premise that all goods had one price for all, based on value and a proper profit margin. The plan paid off and has continued to be one of the company’s trademarks to this day.
For the first few years, Morris Rich had only one associate, Abel Titlebaum. Then, in 1871, a younger brother, Emanuel Rich (1849-1897), became an associate and the firm became M. Rich & Company. After Emanuel and Morris joined forces, business increased steadily and during the following year, the original store was abandoned in favor of a larger facility just down the street on the corner of Hunter and Whitehall (now MLK and Peachtree). In 1876, Morris and Emanuel were joined by a third brother, Daniel (1843-1920).
A few years later, in 1881, the three brothers, now trading under the name M. Rich & Brothers, moved a third time to a new store at 54-56 Whitehall Street (now 84-86 Peachtree Street). A newspaper account heralded the new store as the "handsomest store in Atlanta." Here, for the first time, two whole floors were utilized. This store boasted the first plate glass show windows in town, a feature that would be replicated when the store was torn down during the 1906 renovation that produced the subject building that had thirty-three percent more street frontage as a result of the acquisition of third lot (52 Whitehall Street). It was among the first buildings to use plate glass windows for the display of goods to passing "window shoppers."
In 1897, Morris’ younger brother, Emanuel, died at the age of forty-eight. Having been a valued partner to Morris for more than twenty years and a salesman before that, Emanuel’s death came as s severe blow to Morris and left the store a gap which Morris did not find easy to fill. A young furniture salesman, J. J. Haverty, was ultimately placed in charge of Emanuel’s favorite carpet department. J. J. Haverty later founded Haverty’s Furniture Company, an Atlanta based furniture chain that now has locations throughout Atlanta and the Southeast.
As the company grew, the firm incorporated in 1901 as "M. Rich & Bros. Co." and floor space was increased by the addition of several annexes along Whitehall and Hunter Street (see HISTORY). The company’s continued growth and disjointed physical facility necessitated a major renovation in 1906 when the company held a giant clearance sale in May, 1906 and contracted to the furniture annex that was accessible during the renovation only through the store fronts that the company occupied at 46-48 Whitehall Street. Between June, 1906 and January, 1907, the 1881 structure at 54-56 Whitehall Street was raised and an impressive new four story build was constructed within the walls of the previous store. The new building expanded from just over 40 feet of frontage on Whitehall to 65 feet of frontage. When the new building held its grand opening on January 16, 1907, the four story structure unified the Furniture and Hunter Ell annexes and the 46-48 Whitehall Street storefronts that had afforded access to the Furniture Annex was abandoned.
After its 1907 reopening, M. Rich & Bros. Co. continued to grow and in 1910 the fourth floor of the Main Store was expanded to allow for a new boardroom and two more floors in the Furniture Annex. In the spring of 1924, after fifty-seven years on Whitehall Street, the store moved to its fourth location at Broad and Alabama Street. The new six story structure, the façade and a portion of which was preserved and incorporated into the new Federal Center in 1996, was constructed of steel, Indiana limestone and Normandy tile and cost $1,500,000.00.
In 1926, Morris Rich retired and Walter H. Rich, son of Emanuel and nephew of Morris, succeeded to the presidency of the company. In 1929, the year following the death of its founder, Morris Rich, the present name, Rich’s Incorporated, was adopted. Under the presidency of Walter Rich, who served in the capacity until his death in 1947, and his successor Richard H. Rich, Morris Rich’s grandson, the company expanded throughout the metropolitan Atlanta area.
Even after the department store giant established numerous stores in shopping centers and malls in the suburbs of Atlanta, Rich’s dominated the downtown business and cultural scene.
Throughout the forties, fifties, sixties, seventies and eighties, Rich’s was known for two Atlanta landmarks: the Pink Pig and the Rich’s Christmas Tree. The Pink Pig was a children’s ride that the company operated on the roof of its Alabama Street location during the Christmas shopping season. The ride sat in the shadow of the massive live Christmas tree that was erected just before Thanksgiving on Rich’s Crystal Bridge, the bridge that connected the six story Rich’s building at Broad and Alabama Streets with an annex that was situated between Forsyth and Spring Streets. After Rich’s left downtown Atlanta in the eighties, the Rich’s Christmas Tree and the Traditional Thanksgiving Evening "Lighting of the Great Tree" ceremony was relocated to Underground Atlanta. Ironically, the new location of the tree is less than twenty feet from the still extant Furniture Annex at Kenny’s alley and Pryor Street.
The impact that the Rich’s family and its department stores that remained in family control until the business was sold to Federated Department Stores in the late seventies is unmistakable. Morris, Emanuel, Daniel, Walker and Richard Rich were instrumental in not only in the commercial history of Atlanta but her cultural and religious history as well. Each of these men provided financial, as well as intellectual, support for civic and cultural projects in the secular arena. With the exception of Richard, who was too young to contribute, each of these men were substantial contributors to the building of the Hebrew Temple of 1902. As early Jewish pioneers to the city, the Rich’s family helped pave the way for other Jewish immigrants, like the Regensteins, who established another early business ("The Surprise Store," later "Regenstein’s") in the same central business district in 1872.
The Rich’s family’s civic-mindedness contributed significantly to Atlanta’s early growth and success in becoming the leading commercial and cultural center in the Southeastern United States. The brothers helped bail out the debt-ridden Cotton States and International Exhibition in 1895. When cotton prices dropped in 1914, and Georgians were caught with unsold surpluses, Rich’s M. Rich & Bros. Co. took up to 5,000 bales in exchange for merchandise at above the market price as its "duty and privilege." In 1930, Walter Rich loaned $654,000 to the City Council to help met the teachers’ payroll. Again, in 1945, Richard "Dick" Rich, grandson of founder Morris Rich, opened the store’s safe on the Sunday before Labor Day to pay a detachment of troops at Fort McPherson whose funds were time-locked in the Fort’s vaults.
The architectural firm of Bruce and Morgan remodeled and enlarged this 1882 building for M. Rich Bros. & Co. in 1906. The new four story façade reflects the influence of the Chicago School with wide window spaces located behind uninterrupted vertical piers. The original wide central entrance and great expanse of glass were innovative at the time, as was the well-lighted interior achieved by the use of skylights, atriums and electrical light. Although the exterior and interior design were new and stylish, the underlying construction was traditional wood framing between brick masonry walls. Later remodeling considerably altered the ground floor of the building on Peachtree Street, but the filigree iron work of the spandrels and window framing may still be seen on the upper three stories.
The four story structure at 82-86 Peachtree Street consists of a turn of the century brick bearing wall perimeter with interior wood framing and a flat roof. What is know as 82 Peachtree Street, fronting Peachtree Street (formerly Whitehall Street), is actually a collection of three buildings dating back to 1882. These buildings were expanded and joined together during a major renovation planed and supervised by the architectural firm of Bruce and Morgan. Together, these three buildings form a large T in plan and represent some of the oldest historically significant structures form Atlanta’s original Terminus district.
The building that fronts 65 feet on Peachtree Street was largely rebuilt on the site of the original 1882 building that housed M. Rich and Brothers Dry Goods Store. This building is for purposes of this application referred to as the Main Store.
Behind this store and directly to the north is a five story wing of the building that was built in 1901 to house the M. Rich and Brothers Co. expansion into the furniture business. This building is referred to in historical accounts as the Furniture Annex and the term will be adopted in this application. To this day, an M. Rich & Bros. Co. sign can be seen on the lower portion of the north side of the Furniture Annex. Under the name, the painted sign displays the words "Furniture, Carpet and Rugs."
A second expansion was made about the same time into a three story structure behind and directly south of the Main Store, fronting on MLK Boulevard (formerly Hunter Street). According to historical sources, this building was used to house showrooms, offices an employee restaurant on the basement floor. This annex will be referred to as the Hunter Ell.
There is also a section of the building that appears to have been added to the rear of the Main Store during the 1906 expansion in order to join the three buildings together at their new height. This section, along with the two story hallway leading to the Hunter Ell is referred to as the Connector.
The Main Store
The four story Main Store consists of common brick exterior walls with wood framing supported on the interior of 8" round wooden columns. Two large water towers were installed on the roof of the Main Store during the 1906 expansion to provide water for the sprinkler system that was installed by General Fire Extinguishing Co., a predecessor to Grinnell Fire Protection Company. The original engineering drawings for the sprinkler system that was installed in 1906 and updated in 1910 are still in existence and are located in Grinnell’s Atlanta area offices located in Lithonia, Georgia.
The Peachtree façade consists of a street level plate glass store front and three bays of floor to ceiling windows on the upper floors. Each bay is divided by a vertical column of with glazed brick. A horizontal pattern reminiscent of the early Chicago style is established by copper filigree spandrels at the bottom section of each window on the top two floors. The effect was calculated, by all accounts, to produce an unbroken vista of plate glass for the display of goods and follows the direction of the early modern movement towards a dematerialization of the structure.
The roof line is capped by a decorative brick cornice with an abbreviated gable. The base of the upper floor window lines sits on a large projecting sill that runs the length of the façade. The street level store front has undergone a series of renovations since 1906 with the current treatment consisting of aluminum glass store fronts surrounded by metal panels. Early illustrations of the original façade depict a glass store front in wooden frames with a large metal canopy hanging over the entrance. The canopy is connected by cable to iron rings that are in the mouths of two ornamental two lions’ heads. Subsequent renovations appear to have followed the general pattern of openings and bays established by the original façade.
Openings on the top two floors of the north elevations originally consisted of steel framed industrial windows. These windows have been replaced by double sashed windows similar in design to the ones in the Peachtree façade. There are no openings in the south walls.
The Furniture Annex
The Furniture Annex is a five story building that originally opened in 1901. It has common brick perimeter walls, wood framing supported by square six inch wood columns and a flat roof. The building was originally served by an elevator and adjacent fire stairs. The Furniture Annex dates from an early period than the 1906 Main Store addition and its detailing and fenestration supports historical accounts of its early appearance in the store’s expansion scheme. The upper two floors were added in 1910 when the building was again expanded to increase the size of the fourth floor of the Main Store. During the 1910 expansion, a boardroom was added on the southeastern most corner of the Main Store.
Window openings consist of relatively small punched openings with arched lintels and limestone sills in a heavy masonry wall. In 1999, all of the windows in this building were replaced with new double hung bronze tone ones.
The Hunter Street Ell
The Hunter Street consists of three stories and a basement level fronting on MLK Boulevard. The structure consists of brick bearing walls with wood framing supported by six inch square wood columns and a flat roof. The building character and date of construction appears to be similar to the 1900’s industrial structure found in the Furniture Annex. The bottom floor of this section, fronting on MLK, (south elevation) is currently occupied by store front businesses and is covered with plate glass. The upper portion of this south elevation was remodeled in the late 1940’s or early 1950’s when MLK (then Hunter Street) was widened and the entire façade of the Hunter Ell was removed and set back approximately twelve feet from its original location.
The Connector consists primarily of a four story façade (which makes up a large portion of the east elevation), and an extension of the south wall of the Main Store. The structure is made up of common brick and the interior framing appears to be a continuation of the wood framing used throughout the Main Store. Window openings in this wall consist of rectangular double hung wood windows with arched brick lintels and limestone sills. The alley running behind the Furniture Annex and the Connector appears to have been raised at some point and now covers what probably was basement level access ways.
HEART OF ATLANTA BUSINESS DISTRICT
The subject building is located within a one mile radius of the "The Zero Mile Post" that literally marks the geographic center of the "Heart of Atlanta." The Zero Mile Post, an actual three-foot stone Mile Post, still visible near the entrance of Underground Atlanta, marks the Southeastern Terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad, about which a settlement grew and eventually became "Atlanta." The original terminus was between present Forsyth and Magnolia Streets. It was moved to its present location in 1842. The settlement that sprang up was, initially called "Terminus." It was incorporated as the town of "Marthasville" named after then Georgia Governor Wilson Lumpkin’s daughter, Martha) on December 23, 1843. The name was changed to "Atlanta" on December 26, 1845. It was incorporated as the City of Atlanta on December 29, 1847, with the corporate limits extending one mile in every direction. A new City Charter, approved February 28, 1874, redefined the corporate limits as a circle one mile and a half in every direction from Zero Mile Post.
When Marthasville became a legal entity in 1843, the town had several general stores run by Willis Carlisle, John Bailey, John Kile and others, a dozen or more dwellings, a rudimentary hotel (moved from Boltonville), the railroad board house, and four roads which converged at the present Five Points. These roads were Whitehall, Peachtree, Marietta and Decatur. When the Georgia Railroad’s first engine puffed into Marthasville on September 14, 1845, only a handful of dwellings and businesses had been added to the area surrounding Five Points.
By 1847, the spurt of commerce generated by the railroad was such that Atlanta had nearly 2,500 inhabitants, 50 large stores and two hotels, though the surrounding woods were filled with shanties and the streets were a maze of stumps and roots. At that time, the best known business enterprises in the business district that would one day be known as the "Heart of Atlanta" were George Washington Collier’s Store (and post office) at what is now Five Points; John Kile’s tavern; Mose’s Fromwalt’s tin shop (where he also made stills); Addison Dulin’s general store; the Georgia Railroad’s banking agency run by agent John F. Mims; James McPherson’s bookstore; Austin Leyden’s foundry and machine shop; and two hotels established in 1845. Because of its location near the train terminal, the portion of the Whitehall Street nearest Five Points was considered a prime location for any mercantile business or hotel.
The Heart of Atlanta business district continued to thrive until the Civil War, when, as is now legend, virtually the entire area was burned to the ground by General Sherman and his army. During Sherman’s occupation in Atlanta, in the fall of 1864, he used the Neal house, located on the grounds of the present City Hall, as his headquarters. The Neal Home, which was spared destruction by Sherman, was later used as Girls’ High School and was demolished in 1929 to make room for what is now the old section of City Hall.
After the War came Reconstruction and political and economic turmoil. Despite the turmoil, between 1866 and 1871, Atlanta quickly returned her focus to commercial, cultural and social survival. It was during this period that Morris Rich, along with numerous other Atlanta commercial pioneers, began his dry goods business in this district.
By 1871, Atlanta had 50 liquor saloons, 28 butchers, 150 hacks and drays, 17 insurance agents, 8 wagon yards, 9 printing offices, 391 merchants (not including saloon-keepers), 46 lawyers, 76 physicians, 15 contractors, 15 barbers, 5 boot-and-shoe stores, four wholesale clothing stores, 7 dressmakers, 8 drugstores, 6 furniture retailers, 4 hardware stores, 3 hat shops, 10 jewelers and watchmakers and numerous factories that turned out candy, soap, crackers, furniture and ice. Though the city limits had now expanded to a three mile radius of Zero Mile Post, the vast majority of these business were located in this seminal business district known as the Heart of Atlanta.
In addition to being the geographic point of beginning on what has become a thriving international city, the Heart of Atlanta business district is also significant because it served as an incubator for many businesses that matured as the city itself matured. As the following survey of some of the businesses indicates, many of these businesses, including the business responsible for the erection of the subject building, not only established a long time presence in the Heart of Atlanta business district, they went on to establish a presence throughout the Southeastern United States.
In 1885, the first Haverty’s Furniture Store opened at 117 Hunter Street (now MLK), in a building immediately adjacent to the Hunter Street Ell Annex of the subject property. Significantly, Haverty’s was started by J. J. Haverty who learned the furniture trade while working for Morris Rich at M. Rich & Bros. Company.
In 1890, Douglas-Thomas & Company opened a dry goods store on Whitehall Street to compete with Morris Rich’s establishment. The enterprise prospered and a year later because Douglas-Thomas and Davison with the addition of British-born Beaumont Davison as a partner. By 1894, the business was able to relocate to larger quarters one block north of its original site. That business, which later became Davison-Paxon, and then, Macy’s, is not owned by Macy’s and continues to this day to constitute an Atlanta landmark further north on Peachtree Street.
Two other businesses, well known to Atlantan’s, that also started in this historic district are Regenstein’s and Maier & Berkele, Inc. Regenstein’s, until recently, an exclusive women’s store in Atlanta, opened in 1872 at 74-76 Whitehall Street. Maier & Berkele also began on Whitehall Street in 1890 when Armin Maier, Sr., a jewelers’ apprentice, joined forces with John Berkeley, a retired locksmith. Like Rich’s these business eventually left downtown Atlanta to follow Atlanta suburban sprawl and infatuation with suburban Malls.
Perhaps the most significant business development to take place in this district occurred less than two blocks from the subject building in the spring of 1886. It was that year that John S. Pemberton, a pharmacist who concocted the still secret formula for Coca-Cola, first marketed Coca-Cola by serving the drink in Joseph Jacob’s Pharmacy, located just west of Five Points at the intersection of Whitehall, Peachtree and Marietta Streets.
Today, the Heart of Atlanta business district is still an important business center because of the Five Points Marta Station and its proximity to Georgia State University, the State Capitol, City Hall, the Fulton County Courthouses, the Fulton County Administration Building, the Richard B. Russell Federal Courthouse and the Federal Center.
The M. Rich Brothers & Co. building, now known as 82 Peachtree Street, is significant both for its role in the development of an Atlanta institution (Rich’s Department Store) and for its role in anchoring Atlanta’s original shopping district. It is also significant because it represents the first introduction of the Chicago "commercial design" into the City of Atlanta by Bruce and Morgan, pioneer architects in the City of Atlanta.
The building has been deemed to meet the criteria for listing on the National Register in two separate studies conducted by the City of Atlanta. A 1978 study by the Urban Design Commission included the building (referred to as the W. T. Grant building, presumably to avoid confusion with Rich’s 1924 Store) in its Category 1 list. This list was comprised of buildings which were felt to be eligible for the National Register.
A 1984 study prepared for the Urban Design Commission by noted Atlanta historian Darlene Roth again included the building (Rich’s/W. T. Grant’s Building at 82-86 Peachtree Street) in a listing of buildings deemed to meet criteria for listing in the National Register.
Bruce and Morgan
Alexander C. Bruce (1835-1927) was the first member of the A.I.A. to work in Atlanta. Bruce was born in Fredericksburg, Virginia and trained in Nashville, Tennessee under the English architect H. M. Akeroid. He was active in Atlanta from 1879 until 1904.
Thomas Henry Morgan (1857-1940) was the founding President of the Atlanta Chapter of the A.I.A. (1906). He attended the University of Tennessee and trained in the office of A. C. Bruce when it was located in Knoxville. Morgan came to Atlanta in 1879 to work in Bruce’s new office and in 1883 became his partner. He was the first architect in Atlanta to make blueprints.
Atlanta Historic Resources Workbook, 1978.
Atlanta City Directories, 1872-1931.
Baker, Henry Givens, The Story of a Store – since 1867, Foote & Davis, Atlanta, Georgia, 1953.
Garrett, Franklin. Atlanta and Environs, Vol. II, New York, N.Y.: Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1954
Hertzberg, Steven. Strangers Within the Gate City: The Jews of Atlanta, 1845-1915, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1978.
Roth, Darlene. City of Atlanta: UDC Historical Evaluation Report, 1984.
Shavin, Norman and Galphin, Bruce. Atlanta: Triumph of a People, Atlanta, Georgia: Capricorn Corporation, 1982.
"Rich’s Great White Store Truly A Paradise for Shoppers," The Atlanta Journal, 1/17/07, p. 1.
Mr. Franklin Garrett, Atlanta Historian
Urban Design Commission, City of Atlanta
Atlanta History Center
Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Preservation
Grinnell Fire Protection Company, Blueprint Archives
1886, 1899, 1911, 1931 Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps
Group I (1) (2) (3)
The proposed nomination of the Atlanta Stockade meets the above-referenced criteria for an Historic Building or Site as set out in Section 16-20.004 of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Atlanta.