Designated: Landmark Building Exterior
(Palmer House/Phelan Court Apartments)
Constructed: 1907 (Palmer Apartments) and 1915 (Phelan Court Apartments)
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
The Palmer House Apartments are actually two separate buildings which are considered as one unit based on proximity, usage, provenance, and a shared historical heritage. The original addresses were 790 Peachtree Street and 14 Peachtree Place, both occupying the former homesite of Sidney H. Phelan at 790 Peachtree Street. Each was originally built as an apartment building by the Phelan family and have been maintained as apartments under single ownerships since their construction. However, the two structures are each distinctive in style and form.
The Palmer House Apartments is extremely valuable for its association with the growth and history of an important area of Atlanta, its connection with the Phelan family and certain other residents of the apartments, and its design by three architects with claims to regional and/or national significance. The structure is located in a part of Atlanta which has changed dramatically over the span of the city's history. These changes came about due both to commercial and residential expansion/suburbanization, including prosperity and economic decline. The Palmer/Phelan Apartments, however, have retained their essential architectural integrity. The Sidney Phelan family was one of the most prominent families of the late 1800s and early 1900s, both socially and economically. The senior Sidney Phelan was especially active as a "city builder" in the last two decades of the nineteenth century when Atlanta began to emerge as a major regional urban center.
Finally, Gottfried Norrman, Neel Reid, and Philip T. Shutze are Atlanta architects with claims to regional and even national significance.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEACHTREE STREET CORRIDOR
Since Civil War days, north Peachtree Street had been the site of magnificent homes built by the city's social and economic elite. Nevertheless, that portion of Peachtree Street around present day Eighth through Twelfth Streets originally looped around a thirty-foot ravine that ran east from the present area of Crescent Avenue down toward Piedmont Avenue and had a reputation for harboring thieves and murderers. It was called the "Tight Squeeze" because it was so difficult to slip through there with your life. During the 1880s, however, this section of Peachtree was "cleaned up" in preparation for the 1887 exposition held on the site of what is now Piedmont Park. The notorious ravine was filled in and Old Peachtree Street became Crescent Avenue, running off of Peachtree Place and roughly parallel to new Peachtree Street. In addition, streetcar lines were making the exposition grounds, as well as the new suburban area along new Peachtree Street and environs, accessible for development. By 1900, electric streetcar lines ran along both Peachtree Street and Piedmont Avenue to Fourteenth Street and Piedmont Park.
Wealthy Atlantans followed. Between the late 1890s and 1911, the block of land bounded by Eighth Street, West Peachtree Street, Fourteenth Street and Piedmont Avenue became the home to some of the most prominent families in the city. Frank Ellis, W. S. Witham, Augustus Adair, Cornelius J. Sheehan, Thomas Egleston, Morton Emmons and John Tye all built large houses in the area. The Sheehan home later became the Crescent Apartments and the residence of Margaret Mitchell, author of Gone With the Wind. This building is still standing about a block from the Palmer Apartments. Other prominent Atlantans who moved to the Peachtree-Tenth Streets area included: A. M. Robinson, wholesale dry goods and notions merchant; James Freeman, jeweler and diamond merchant; Thomas Morgan, architect in the well-known firm of Bruce and Morgan; General Andrew West, real estate dealer; and Captain Joseph Burke, who built an "ornate stone residence" at the corner of Crescent Avenue and Peachtree Place.
Two books published in 1895 and 1903 provide an interesting pictorial and written record of Peachtree Street during this period. The text of the 1895 Art Work of Atlanta, Georgia describes the homes on Peachtree as the "most elegant residences" in the city. "For miles and miles the street is lined with homes that are in themselves tributes to the architect's art . . . ." (p. 5). The 1903 book provides a picture of Peachtree Place taken from Peachtree. The Phelan residence on the southwest corner faces an equally spacious mansion on the northwest corner. The Joseph Burke home is barely visible behind large trees on his lot. The small, planted island divides Peachtree Place as it does today, giving the street a distinctly residential atmosphere.
On a map copyrighted in 1895, the southwest corner lot at Peachtree Street and Peachtree Place was owned by J. L. Tye, an important Atlanta lawyer according to Franklin Garrett of the Atlanta Historical Society. Sometime around 1900, this lot became the property of Sidney Phelan, who built himself a two story brick veneered (first floor) and half-timbered (second floor) home. Atlanta City Directories list 790 Peachtree Street as the home of Sidney Phelan until 1909.
By 1910-11, the area was entering a new phase of suburban development. Commercial buildings and multi-family residences, i.e. apartment houses, were more and more in evidence. The Sanborn Insurance Maps for 1911 show that large private residences still predominated. However, the Palmer Apartments now cover the back half of the lot where the Phelan homesite still stood, which was evidently rented to a Thomas Langston (Atlanta City Directory 1911). Both the Sanborn Maps and the 1911 Directory show a large number of commercial establishments along Peachtree fronting the street between Tenth and Eleventh streets, including a branch post office. A significant proliferation of apartments appears in the same 1911 City Directory--the Elysee Palace, Hampton Court and Holly Apartments between Peachtree Place and Tenth Street, and the Wickliffe Apartments in the next block of Peachtree Street. The new businesses were primarily grocery stores (including the L. W. Rogers store, a forerunner of Colonial Stores), laundries, and garages for automobiles. In other words, services oriented to the new suburbanites.
This part of Midtown remained basically a middle to upper-middle class neighborhood until after World War II when there was a long period of decline. The reasons are many including the growth of more and more suburbs farther to the north and the subsequent movement of businesses, which was accompanied by a decline in rents. Efforts by the Midtown Neighborhood Association, the Midtown Businessmen Association, and the construction of three nearby MARTA stations helped in the current revival of the area around the Palmer House Apartments. The combination of the MARTA stations with the development of Colony Square also assisted the area's revival. The Palmer/Phelan Apartments have survived virtually intact with renovations in 1973 and 1978.
SIDNEY H. PHELAN
Sidney H. Phelan was not a native of Atlanta, having been born in Montgomery, Alabama in the early 1850s. He and his seven brothers served in the Phelan battery during the Civil War. His first appearance in Atlanta records is as manager of the Gate City Produce and Cotton Exchange in the Atlanta City Directory of 1881 with a residence at the Kimball House Hotel. Sometime in the late 1880s, he formed the S. H. Phelan Co., installing a telephone in 1890. In 1887, he was listed in the Atlanta Constitution as a charter member of the Gentlemen's Driving Club, an exclusive organization for the city's elite. The Capital City Club, another club for the city's elite, was organized in his office. As a prominent and apparently wealthy Atlantan, Mr. Phelan served as one of the seven directors of the Executive Committee for the Piedmont Exposition Company which sponsored the 1887 Exposition and the Cotton States Exposition of 1895. His other enterprises included a plantation in Crawford County to which he retired around 1905. Married to Palmer Graham, the couple had seven children. Sidney Phelan died in 1913 at age sixty.
Although, for the reasons stated above, the Palmer and Phelan Apartments have been considered as a unit, they represent two distinct architectural styles and approaches in apartment construction in Atlanta. The design of the Palmer is rare in Atlanta. Early apartments in many of the world's great cities resembled small luxury hotels. The Palmer is one of only a few early Atlanta apartments that followed this trend. It is also rare in the fact that it is an Atlanta apartment building that reflects the Victorian era in its eclectic style. The facade walls are recessed to varying depths and feature curving as well as block forms. The stone ornamentation is quite elaborate and contrasts strongly with the brick. The facade exhibits the exuberance that can be seen in some of the original residences in Inman Park.
The Phelan is sympathetic to its neighbor in scale, materials and even in the way some of those materials are used. This design, however, is not reflective of the Victorian era. It foreshadowed the so-called garden apartments that became the most widely constructed type of apartment structure to be built in Atlanta. It also is a significant structure for our understanding of the work of the firm that became the most influential architectural firm in Atlanta for the next several decades--Hentz, Reid and Adler (later Shutze). The apartment with its flat facades and pared-down classical ornamentation reflects the Georgian Revival style homes that Reid designed for such areas as Druid Hills.
In late 1906 or early 1907, the S. H. Phelan Co. engaged the architectural firm of Norrman and Faulkner to design an apartment building for the back portion of the Phelan lot at 790 Peachtree Street. The building permit was issued June 28, 1907 to the firm of Donaldson (Reuben D.) and Pearson. According to the building permit, the structure was to be five stories of reinforced brick with a tile roof. Wall thickness varied from 21" on the first floor to 12" on the fifth. Estimated cost was $70,000.00. The Palmer Apartments was completed on March 18, 1908 with ground dimensions of 60' by 78'.
The building facade is impressive in appearance with a stone base, Flemish bond brickwork, twin towers topped by balustrades and flanking projecting pavilions. These pavilions house sun rooms except for the top floor which has deep-set balconies. Small, pointed gables top the pavilions and decorative pilasters highlight the fourth floor facade. The fenestration is varied and includes rectangular, multi-paned windows, and sunroom windows set in large arched openings. The central section contained the stairwell and is set deep between the twin towers The central entrance portal, also set between the towers, features decorative stonework, including a stone scroll. The structure is unmistakably in the Victorian mode and has a strong medieval character.
G. L. Norrman was certainly the senior architect in the firm of Norrman and Faulkner. Mr. Faulkner later went to work for the prestigious firm of Edwards and Walter. Although it is impossible to determine exactly who contributed the most to the design of the Palmer Apartments, there is no indication that Norrman was inactive at the time. He had evidently suffered a stroke and a period of paralysis several years before 1907, but was reported as an active senior partner in the firm of Norrman, Hentz and Reid when he committed suicide in 1909.
Norrman had come to Atlanta around 1881, first appearing in the City Directory of 1882 in partnership with M. B. Weed. At that time, there were only six architectural firms listed in the directory. Originally from Sweden, Norrman studied at the University of Copenhagen and at a "German technical university" before coming to Atlanta. What accomplishments he had made prior to this are unknown, but they must have been sufficiently impressive to gain him the commission for the buildings at the International Cotton Exposition of 1881. The great hall of this significant event in Atlanta's emergence on the national scene was in the shape of a Greek cross 720 feet in length, with arms measuring ninety-six feet. There were also many other buildings including a restaurant, police headquarters, other exhibition halls, and a press pavilion.
Over the next three decades, Norrman enjoyed a productive and respected career as one of Atlanta's major architects. According to historian and Georgia State Historic Preservation Officer, Dr. Elizabeth Lyon, Norrman employed a variety of styles including Gothic Revival, Romanesque Revival, Queen Anne, Shingle, and "Middle Eastern fantasies." The eclectic nature of Norrman's work was evident in the Queen Anne style Gate City National Bank Building of 1883, which combined "rough masonry and round arch Romanesque Revival windows" with "gables, balustrades and Greek motifs." In the same year, he designed the Edward Peters residence (now the Mansion Restaurant at 179 Ponce de Leon Avenue), which Dr. Lyon calls "Atlanta's finest example of the Queen Anne Style residence . . . . The general features of the style - asymmetry of massing a mixture of materials and details - for example the deep porches."
Norrman's institutional buildings were many and varied in style. They included the monumental buildings for the Piedmont Exposition of 1887, the Hirsch Building on Whitehall (demolished), the John Silvey Co. Building on Marietta Street (demolished), the First Baptist Church of Atlanta (demolished), Stone Hall (Fountain Hall) at Morris Brown College, the Armstrong Hotel of Rome, Ga., the Windsor Hotel in Americus, and the fortress-like Atlanta police headquarters (demolished). In 1893, he designed the Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Building at the southwest corner of Pryor and Mitchell Streets in the "Chicago/commercial" style exemplified by Louis Sullivan. Four years later, his design for Atlanta's first Christian Science Church was described in a 1902 publication as a ". . . beautiful white structure in the classic architecture of a Grecian temple, surmounted by a graceful dome." (Thomas Martin, Atlanta and Its Builders, pp. 585-586) Perhaps his most fanciful creation was the Hebrew Orphans' Home (demolished), which foreshadowed the exotic nature of the Fox Theatre. This large institution featured a minaret clock tower, onion domes, horseshoe arches, ornamental tracery, and terra cotta columns.
Norrman undoubtedly designed many private residences, but the most unique was probably the John Silvey mansion on Marietta Street. The architect drafted and built the home so that it could be taken apart and moved at a later date. This was indeed done successfully several years later.
It seems incontestable that Gottfried Norrman was an architect of importance both locally and regionally. His association with the Atlanta expositions of 1881 and 1887 connect him with national and even international events. In 1885, he was made an associate member of the American Institute of Architects (AIA), becoming a fellow in 1897. In 1906, he was a charter member of the Georgia Chapter of AIA and that organization's first vice-president. On several occasions, his work was published in the American Architect and Building News. An 1892-93 series of books on world fair cities and their prominent citizens stated of Norrman that " . . . no architect in the South has designed so many handsome public and private buildings." (City of Atlanta: A Descriptive, Historical and Industrial Review of the Gateway City of the South: Being the World's Fair Series On Great American Cities, pp. 107-108.) A contemporary and competitor, Thomas H. Morgan, stated of Norrman that " . . . by his culture, integrity of character and ability as an architect, he made friends easily, retained them, and soon became a leader in the profession and the social life of the city." (The Atlanta Historical Bulletin for September 1943, p. 93.)
Although by no means a certainty, the Palmer Apartments seems to be the only building of its nature attributable to Norrman. It is also one of the few of any of his buildings still standing and functioning in its original role. Architecturally, it exhibits Norman's eclectic style and his connections with the growth of Atlanta and the trend to suburbanization.
The S. H. Phelan Co. hired Hentz and Reid to build a new apartment house on the front portion of the lot at the corner of Peachtree Street and Peachtree Place. On April 15, 1915, a building permit was issued for the Phelan Apartments, a three story brick structure, fronting sixty-four feet on Peachtree Street and 109 feet on Peachtree Place. There were to be twelve apartments with an estimated building cost of $32,000.00. Construction was by Donaldson and Pearson and was completed on October 21, 1915.
The architectural plans for the Phelan Apartments show a "U" shaped building around a central courtyard with two main entrances, one on Peachtree Street and the other located on Peachtree Place in the section closest to the Palmer Apartments. There are only small changes between the building as it is today and the architectural drawings of early 1915. Elaborate Ionic pilasters frame the north facade entrance (Peachtree Place) and the glass panelled double doors are topped by a pediment broken by a large cartouche. A heavily molded double window continues above the pediment giving an added emphasis to the doorway, a style typical of Reid. Two large, pointed gables top the two Peachtree Place wings with oval ventilator openings (the original drawings show these openings surrounded with elaborately carved decorative wood). The garden entrance on Peachtree Place making the "U" shape of the building had elaborate wood gates in a brick wall. The wood is no longer there and there are wrought iron gates. The gable roofs and connecting portion of roof are steeply pitched and present a dramatically impressive mass of red tile.
The Peachtree Street facade fronts the sidewalk and has a matching, steeply pitched, red tile roof. The doorway is similar to that on the north facade, but more elaborate in design. Ionic pilasters frame the glass panelled double doors but the pediment over the doorway is broken this time by a four-pane window, topped by a four-over-four window which is also surrounded by ascending carved wood molding. The two windows are further decorated by an elaborate carving of cascading fruit coming to rest on the ends of the broken pediment over the doorway. All of the above are shown in the original architectural drawings. Three six-over-six windows frame the central portion of the Peachtree Street doorway. Arched, brick silled, double windows (three to each end of the facade) provide light to the sunporches and complete the east facade. This facade as well as the north facade are, therefore, essentially the same as originally designed and constructed. The architectural integrity of the Phelan Apartments as designed by the firm of Hentz and Reid remains intact.
The Phelan Apartment is not a fully developed garden apartment type, however, it shows the form as it was first used. The classical motifs were a hallmark of the Hentz, Reid, Alder (later Shutze) firm and were adopted by other architects for the numerous apartments built in Atlanta during the 1920s.
In 1909, the association of G. L. Norrman and John Faulkner ended and the former joined Hal Hentz and Neel Reid to form Norrman, Hentz & Reid. The firm was short-lived due to the suicide of Norrman in November of 1909, but the business seemed to prosper. The Arts League Catalogue published around 1910, includes a number of buildings by the architects, the most impressive of which was the Georgia Life Insurance Building of Macon, Ga.
Neel Reid was the main designer in the firm and was to become one of Atlanta's premiere residential architects, although the firm had many large scale commissions as well. He began his study of architecture in the office of Atlanta architect Willis Denny in 1904. Between 1905 and 1906, he attended the Columbia University School of Architecture in New York and the Paris Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Hal Hentz was his classmate at both places but Hentz remained in Europe in 1907 when Reid went to New York City to work in the firm of Murphy and Dana. By 1909, however, they had joined forces to form their own business with offices in Macon and Atlanta.
Biographer James Grady states that Reid's architecture was eclectic in design, fitting his temperament and the fashion of the times. His houses give an impression of "unusual space and size" with "monumental" doorways, and oversized entrance and stair halls. There is a greater than expected lavishness of design, particularly oversized columns on the porches. "Reid was a master of scale; it is the indefinable essence of his style." (p. xxii) In her master's thesis at the University of Georgia on Reid, Stephanie Kapetanakos comments that Reid and his associates represent ". . . the best segment of the competent professionalism that brought the eclectic approach. . . to its last flowering in the first third of the 20th century." (p. 31) Along with many residences in Atlanta, Reid was to design the magnificent Italian villa for Fuller Callaway in LaGrange, Ga., Rich's and Muses's Department Stores in Atlanta, and Emory University Hospital.
One especially interesting aspect of the architectural drawings is the appearance of the initials of Philip Trammell Shutze. They are clearly evident on the drawing for the east facade along with those of Neel Reid under the heading "drawn by." The much larger north facade with the Peachtree Place entrance and the garden entrance contain only the initials of "PTS" under "drawn by" and "traced by". The latter is also true for the drawings title "Typical Floor Plan." The drawing for the elaborate Peachtree Street doorway, which has been attributed to Shutze, however, shows only the initials of Hal Hentz (HFH) and Neel Reid (JNR).
In 1915, Philip T. Shutze was barely on the threshold of an illustrious career as an architect. He was a student at Georgia Tech working part-time for Hentz and Reid when time allowed. Encouraged by his employers, Shutze went on for a degree at Columbia University in New York. He won the Rome Prize for architecture, which included three years of study at the American Academy in Rome, Italy. The five years Shutze spent in Europe are considered the "most formative period of his life" by his biographer, Dr. Elizabeth Dowling. Fascinated by Italian baroque architecture, the young architect returned to America in the 1920s eventually becoming a partner in the firm of Hentz, Reid and Adler, after Neel Reid's death in 1926. For the next four decades, Shutze emerged as one of Atlanta's and the southeast's premiere architects.
In his long and extremely active career, Shutze designed the renovation and expansion of the Citizens and Southern National Bank in Atlanta, the facade for Rich's downtown Atlanta department store, the 696 Peachtree Apartments, the Reid House on Peachtree Street (originally the Garrison Apartments), the English Palladian Swan House on the grounds of the Atlanta Historical Society, a new entrance addition to Emory University Hospital, Glenn Memorial Church and Educational Building at Emory University, numerous commercial buildings for Southern Bell, and a large number of private residences. As his career began to wind down, he received significant recognition for his accomplishments. The Low Library of Columbia University had a major exhibit of his achievements in February 1978. Prior to that, he was awarded the Bronze Medal for Achievement in Design by the American Institute of Architects (1974), and the Classical America Society proclaimed him "America's Greatest Living Classical Architect" (1977).
Thus, in one property, are combined the talents of Gottfried Norrman, Neel Reid and Philip Shutze. The impact of these three architects on Atlanta's built environment spans almost 100 years of the city's history. The building also shows the evolution of the eclectic style, more prominent in the Palmer section, to a more reserved style of architecture with touches of the baroque in the Phelan section. Furthermore, the building(s) show how three major architects met the needs (both aesthetic and practical) of the city's new growth, prosperity, and suburbanization.
RESIDENTS/PALMER & PHELAN APARTMENTS
Franklin Garrett, City Historian for Atlanta, remembers the Palmer and Phelan Apartments as what would be now described as "luxury" apartments. This certainly appears to be the case in the years prior to the late 1930s and World War II. In that period, individuals prominent in the social and economic life of Atlanta resided in one or the other of the buildings. Garrett recalls that Margaret Mitchell's uncle, Gordon Mitchell, lived in the Palmer Apartments. Also, at one time or another, all three sons of Sidney H. Phelan Sr. lived in the buildings, as well as his son-in-law Ernest Dallis. Mr. Dallis would later form his own advertising company.
Many other business leaders, both established and "on the way up," seemed to have lived there according to the City Directories. Some of the first residents of the Palmer House included James Riley of the J. C. Riley Fire Insurance Co.; Millard Vandiver of Vandiver Plumbing and Heating Co.; Frank Walter of Edwards and Walter Architects; John Hanson, president of Central of Georgia Railway; George Usher, general superintendent of the Postal Tel-Cable Co.; Charles Dannals, later vice-president of Atlanta Milling Co. and president of Capitola Flour; Moses Frank, president of Elberton Oil Mills (a large and important company per Franklin Garrett); Sidney Hogerton, divisional superintendent of American Telephone and Telegraph Co.; and Benjamin D. Watkins, associated with George and Forrest Adair in real estate, later partner with William Candler in a company which was to become the Benjamin D. Watkins Co., and president of Piedmont Savings Co.
Between 1915 and the early 1930s, residents appear to have continued to be middle to upper-middle class businessmen and their wives. The smaller Phelan Apartments had its share of bachelors, single working women, and widows. A number of medical doctors and individuals associated with the growing automotive industry moved in. Some of the latter included Charles Love, manager of Chevrolet Motor Co.; William Mathers, president and general manager of Mathers Motor Co.; Edward Gay, sales manager of Packard Enterprises of Georgia; Samuel Dick, general manager of Templar Motor Sales; Ralph Parker, president of The Cadillac Co. of Atlanta; Dale Addington, sales manager of Dodge Corp.; Patrick Wise, salesman for Fiske Tire Co.; and Delthea Dockery, stenographer for Springfield Tire Co. Curiously, their activities probably contributed to the growth of new suburbs and the decline of their own neighborhood.
A survey of Atlanta City Directories shows that the Phelan and Palmer Apartments maintained high levels of occupancy up to, and including, the present. In fact, it appears that tenants were generally long-term residents well into the 1970s, particularly in the larger Palmer Apartments. However, by the end of that decade, tenant turnover became more prevalent, even though there had been two interior renovations in 1973, in the amount of $25,000, and in 1978 (no figures available).
Books Art Work of Atlanta. The W. H. Parish Publishing Co., 1895.
Art Work of Atlanta. Chicago: The Gravure Illustration Co., 1903.
Atlanta City Directories. 1879-1935.
Atlanta Homes. 1895-1900. Atlanta Presbyterian Publishing Co., (N.D.).
Atlanta's Lasting Landmarks. Atlanta Urban Design Commission, 1987.
Catalogue of the First Annual Exhibition of the Architectural Arts League of Atlanta. Atlanta: Architectural Arts League, 1910 (?).
City of Atlanta: A Descriptive, Historical and Industrial Review of the Gateway City of the South (Being the World's Fair Series on Great American Cities). Louisville, Ky.: The Inter-State Publishing Co., 1892-93.
Dowling, Elizabeth. American Classicist: The Architecture of Philip Trammell Shutze. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1989.
Garrett, Franklin. Atlanta and Environs: A Chronicle of Its People and Events. Vol. II. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1954.
Glass, Dudley (ed.). Men of Atlanta. 1924.
Grady, James. Architecture of Neel Reid in Georgia. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1973.
Lyon, Elizabeth. Atlanta Architecture: The Victorian Heritage. Atlanta: Atlanta Historical Society, 1976.
Martin, Thomas H. Atlanta and its Builders: A Comprehensive History of the Gate City of the South. Century Memorial Publishing Co.,1902.
"Architect G. L. Norrman Speeds a Fatal Bullet Through Right Temple," Atlanta Constitution. Nov. 17, 1909, pp. 1 & 2.
Bidwell Jr., Spencer. "Atlanta's Early Builders," The Atlanta Historical Bulletin, XV, #4, pp. 88-96.
"Body of S. H. Phelan Jr., Arrives This Morning; Funeral This Afternoon," Atlanta Constitution. Mar. 14, 1914, p. 12.
Garrett, Franklin. "A Short History of Land Lots 105 and 106 Of the 17th District of Fulton County, Georgia," The Atlanta Historical Journal, XXVII, #1, Spring 1983, pp. 51-70.
Morgan, Thomas H. "The Georgia Chapter of the American Institute of Architects," The Atlanta Historical Bulletin, VII, #28, Sept. 1943, pp. 89-137.
"S. H. Phelan Sr., Dies in Crawford County, " Atlanta Constitution. June 14, 1913, p. 1.
"Atlanta in 1890's," drawn by H. B. Baylor of Atlanta, Ga. (copyrighted 1895). Page 37 of volume titled Harvey Hatcher of Atlanta Historical Society map collection.
"New Map of Atlanta," by E. B. Latham of Atlanta, Ga. (dated 1900 by AHS). Published by William A. Flamm & Co., Baltimore, Md.
Sanborn Insurance Maps, Atlanta 1911. New York. (microfilm collection at Georgia State University; Vol. I, reel 3, Frame 238).
Dr. Elizabeth Dowling of Georgia Tech, February 22, 1991.
Franklin Garrett of the Atlanta Historical Society, February 26, 1991.
Atlanta City Building Permits for June 1907, April 1915, and May 1973. (Microfilm collection at the Atlanta Historical Society)
Gwinner, Ken. "Palmer House and Phelan House Apartments: Nomination for the National Historic Register," March 15, 1981. On file at the Georgia State Historic Preservation Office.
Kapetanakos, Stephanie. The Architecture of Neel Reid: A Study of the Residential Architecture of Neel Reid in Georgia. Athens, Ga., 1971. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia, located at the Atlanta Historical Society.
MSS Collection of Hentz, Reid, Adler & Shutze Architectural Drawings, Roll B, Frames 434-444 and J170-265. Atlanta Historical Society microfilm collection. "Windsor House Apartments," Landmark Building Designation Report by the Atlanta Urban Design Commission.
Group I (1) (2) (3)
The proposed nomination of the Palmer House Apartments meets the above-referenced criteria, as well as the minimum criteria, for a Landmark Building or Site as set out in Section 16-20.004 of the Code of Ordinances of the City of Atlanta.